By definition, electrical conductivity is a measure of how well electrical current (charge in motion) can pass through a material under the influence of an applied voltage/electric field. Thermal conductivity measures how well heat (thermal energy in motion) can pass through a material under a temperature differential.
What is thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity?
The thermal conductivity of a material describes how fast the material can conduct thermal energy. The electrical conductivity of a material describes the electrical current that will occur due to a given potential difference.
What is the thermal conductivity of a metal?
The thermal conductivity of metals is the amount of heat that is transferred from one metal to another. This metal that can act as a medium for heat transfer is known as a thermal conductor. Heat transfer occurs from metal at higher temperatures to the material at lower temperatures.
What is the reason of electrical and thermal conductivity of metals?
Metallic bonding accounts for many physical properties of metals, such as strength, ductility, thermal and electrical resistivity and conductivity, opacity, and luster. It is the free movement of electrons in metals that give them their conductivity. Metals contain free moving delocalized electrons.
What do you mean by electrical conductivity?
Conductivity is the measure of the ease at which an electric charge or heat can pass through a material. A conductor is a material which gives very little resistance to the flow of an electric current or thermal energy. … Electrical conductivity tells us how well a material will allow electricity to travel through it.
The faster electrons transmit energy to the cooler, slower ones by colliding with them, and just as for electrical conductivity, the longer the mean free path, the faster the energy can be transmitted, i.e., the greater the thermal conductivity.
What is definition of conductivity?
Definition of conductivity
: the quality or power of conducting or transmitting: such as. a : the reciprocal of electrical resistivity. b : the quality of living matter responsible for the transmission of and progressive reaction to stimuli.
Which theory effectively explain electrical and thermal conductivity in metals?
The Wiedemann-Franz law states that the ratio of thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity of a metal is proportional to its temperature. The law can be explained by the fact that free electrons in the metal are involved in the mechanisms in both heat and electrical transport.
How do you find the thermal conductivity of a metal?
K = (QL)/(AΔT)
- K is the thermal conductivity in W/m.K.
- Q is the amount of heat transferred through the material in Joules/second or Watts.
- L is the distance between the two isothermal planes.
- A is the area of the surface in square meters.
- ΔT is the difference in temperature in Kelvin.
What is thermal conductivity of Aluminium?
Thermal Conductivity. – k – (W/m K) Aluminum. -73.
What is meant by thermal conductivity?
Thermal conductivity can be defined as the rate at which heat is transferred by conduction through a unit cross-section area of a material, when a temperature gradient exits perpendicular to the area.
Why are metals conductive?
Metals conduct electricity by allowing free electrons to move between the atoms. These electrons are not associated with a single atom or covalent bond. … Thermal conductivity is similar to electrical in that exciting atoms in one section works to excite and vibrate adjacent atoms.
Which has highest thermal conductivity?
Diamond – 2000 – 2200 W/m•K
Diamond is the leading thermally conductive material and has conductivity values measured 5x’s higher than copper, the most manufactured metal in the United States. Diamond atoms are composed of a simple carbon backbone that is an ideal molecular structure for effective heat transfer.